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LIBRARY OF WELLES LEY COLLEGE PURCHASED FROM LIBRARY FUNDS THE MEDIAEVAL ACADEMY OF AMERICA PUBLICATION NO. Every such effort toughens the muscles of the reasoning faculties, and helps to set us free from the bond- age to mere tradition and the idolatry of mere authority, which debilitates the mind like insidious poison. At each intersection, the corresponding tone is indicated in letters.

38 THE NOTATION OF POLYPHONIC MUSIC 900-1600 THE NOTATION OF POLYPHONIC MUSIC 900-1600 By WILLI APEL Fifth edition Revised and with Commentary THE MEDIAEVAL ACADEMY OF AMERICA CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 1953 The publication of this book was made possible by grants of funds to the Academy from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Committee on Musicology of the American Council of Learned Societies, and the Weyman Foundation of the Department of Music of Harvard University. These words serve as an eloquent expression of the raison d'etre of a book whose aim is 'to set us free from the bondage to mere tradition,' which hopes to enable the student to 'discover what he knew only from the authorities,' and which is designed to prepare him for 'original re- search' in the field of early music. For greater simplicity, the various octaves have not been identified in the case of each letter, but are merely indicated by three dotted lines marking off the regions of the two- and one-line octaves, the middle octave, and the great octave. / // in IV V VI -3—4- -8— 9- ■7 — 8 9- -8 9- This scheme proves especially convenient, since it refers the tran- scriber immediately from the signs of the tablature to the notes of modern staff notation.

/Another principle observed in this book is to avoid as much as possible everything of purely theoretical importance. 188 PART III: THE NOTATION OF ENSEMBLE MUSIC: BLACK NOTATION I. A transcription in a style reminiscent of the free keyboard polyphony of Froberger, Frescobaldi or Bach (in his toccatas, preludes etc.) would seem to be preferable in these cases. The lowest line here stands for the highest string, and the highest line for the lowest string.

Since the explanations of the theorists of the thirteenth to the sixteenth century have been of great value in solving many problems of early notation, a great deal of atten- tion has been given them in the publications by Bellermann, Riemann, Wolf, and others. At first sight, this arrangement appears to be alien and unnatural.

The preparatory studies and the completion of the manuscript have been made possible chiefly through a grant from the Milton Fund of Har- vard University. The reproduction on page 65 shows a Fortune a bien couru sur mot from French Lute Tablatures 65 mm mm ^^^^l*I* m mm mm m mm ■ €CC CM C AC P €AC - AC^A - ■■ — rrr;: £-OCHA«-A- A€rt C C - • ACA— " A A €-A- ■fr— €- 4— €- M MM O ■PC- P C A C P-; -M the Introduction.

It suffices to say that a score of years has by no means outdated it or rendered it useless. By this method one avoids the confusion caused by continually darting from one line to another.Today it is still an excellent example of what it was meant to be, namely, a 'Handbuch der Notationskunde' or, in other words, a work in which the entire field of musical notation from the earliest periods to the present day is treated. 346 xiv Contents Page Ouvert and clos 049 Examples 3™ C. The chart on page 6o illustrates the gradual completion in the transcription of the first staff of Facsimile 18, according to the method outlined.So broad a scope necessarily involves the inclusion of much material of infrequent occurrence and of subordinate importance; and on the other hand, a rather cursory treatment of material which, from the student's point of view, is certainly deserving of more thorough discussion. As with all the lute tablatures, the notation here provides no possibility of indicating different time-values or different rhythms occurring simul- taneously in various parts.Indeed, it was his kind interest that enabled me to give the courses which form the basis of the present book; it was at his suggestion that the book was begun; and it was his unflagging enthu- siasm which has encouraged me time and again to devote my best energies to making it what he wanted it to be. From the last statement it is obvious that in French tablatures the lines representing the strings are arranged in the same order as in Milan's book, i.e., with the highest string on top.With the foregoing reference to the inaugurator of this book as a point of departure, I may be allowed to proceed in chronological order. The main difference is the use of letters (the Introduction uses capital letters, the later sources use small letters) instead of figures, and of a staff with five instead of six lines.

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